THE AROMA OF HOPS

THE AROMA OF HOPS

With the input of 36 individuals at 20 companies in the hop and beer industry, the American Society of Brewing Chemists Sensory Subcommittee has compiled 107 unique terms to describe the aroma of hops. The terms were categorized by the authors into 11 broader aroma categories. They presented the list at Brewing Summit 2018.

Fruity - Citrus
Grapefruit, Orange, Lemon, Lime, Tangerine, Mandarin

Fruity - Tropical
Mango, Pineapple, Papaya, Banana, Lychee, Guava, Passion Fruit, Coconut

Fruity - Berry
Raspberry, Strawberry, Blueberry, Blackberry, Concord Grape, White Grape, Gooseberry, Black Currant/Catty, Red Currant, White Wine

Fruity - Stone Fruit
Peach, Apricot, Nectarine, Cherry, Plum

Fruity - Melon
Cantaloupe, Honeydew, Cucumber, Watermelon

Fruity - Pomme
Apple, Pear

Floral
Geranium, Rose, Lavender, Jasmine, Elderflower, Potpourri

Woody
Pine, Resinous, Cedar, Tobacco, Sandalwood

Herbaceous
Black Tea, Green Tea, Mint, Rosemary, Bergamot, Dill, Thyme, Basil, Sage, Cannabis, Skunk, Menthol

Grassy
Fresh Cut Grass, Lemongrass, Green Leaves, Hay

Spicy
Black Pepper, Clove, Licorice/Anise, Ginger, Coriander, Cardamom

Sweet Aromatic
Caramel, Chocolate, Vanilla, Bubblegum

Medicinal
Plastic, Rubber, Burnt Rubber, Smoke, Petroleum, Diesel

Dairy
Cheese, Cream, Waxy

Earthy
Musty, Soil, Marsh, Moss

Vegetal
Onion, Green Onion, Garlic, Green Bell Pepper, Celery, Asparagus, Cabbage

Barth Haas group flavour standards

After developing flavour language the Barth Haas group has proposed others also adopt, researchers at the company identified the need for flavor standards to represent the categories of the sensory language. They explained in a poster at The Brewing Summit, "Our goal became to develop hop flavour standards for the 12 flavour categories of the BHG language, using hop compounds that have been previously identified in hops and hoppy beers. In the initial development stages of the hop standards, we turned to literature in search of flavor active hop compounds that could elicit the flavors of our 12-point sensory language.

"More than 45 compounds were identified and purchased for initial development of the hop flavour standards. Single compounds and blends of compounds were prepared in attempt to create holistic flavour representations of each sensory category. Prototypes were critically reviewed by 25 members of the Haas sensory panel, and iterative rounds of feedback were given. Final formulations were selected that were easiest for the majority of the panel to recognize as the target flavour. The hop flavour standards were then implemented in sensory training. Simple blind recognition tests were used to validate the panelist's performance and ability. After three consecutive blind recognition tests, it was shown that panelist's ability to recognize hop flavours improved significantly."

Table 1. Sensory language definitions

Table 2. Hop compounds identified for each flavor category

Thirteen Hops-Odor Compounds to Know

caryophyllene » woody
citronellol » citrusy, fruity
farnesene » floral
geraniol » floral, rose, geranium
humulene » woody, piney
limonene » citrusy, orange
linalool » floral, orange
myrcene » green, resinous, piney
nerol » rose, citrusy
pinene » spicy, piney
3-mercaptohexanol » guava, tropical
3 mercaptoheyl acetate » muscat, passion fruit
4-mercapto-4-methyl-pentan-2-one » black currant, tropical

Hops by Compound

Geraniol-rich Hops

Aurora, Bravo, Cascade, Centennial, Chinook, Citra, Mosaic, Motueka, Styrian Golding 

Linalool-rich Hops
Amarillo, Cascade, Centennial, Citra, Glacier, Millennium, Mount Hood, Nugget, Orange Sunrise, Pacifica, Willamette

Hops that Contain 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP)
Apollo, Cascade, Centennial, Citra, Chinook, Cluster, Equinox, Mosaic, Simcoe, Summit

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